This blog is a guide on how to set up LitmusChaos on a Raspberry Pi cluster. This kind of setup can be used for development or testing purposes, as it is cheaper than cloud-based services, and it overcomes any limitations on your system.
LitmusChaos is a toolset to do cloud-native chaos engineering. It provides tools to orchestrate chaos on Kubernetes to help SREs find weaknesses in their deployments. SREs use Litmus to run chaos experiments initially in the staging environment and eventually in production to find bugs and vulnerabilities. Fixing the weaknesses leads to increased resilience of the system.
You can use this setup to see LitmusChaos in action, as well as this, can be used for development-level testing of services using Litmus.
Setting up a Raspberry Pi Cluster
This section is a guide on how to set up an RPi cluster to run Kubernetes with a Master and multiple Worker Nodes.
For setting up the RPi Cluster, we need the following hardware (minimum requirement)
- Raspberry Pis (at least 2, the 4 GB variant will be good enough)
- Power Hub for powering the Raspberry Pis
- Ethernet Cable(s)
- Router (Optional Wi-Fi)
- 32 GB SD Card(s) (One for each RPi)
- MicroSD Card Reader (or MicroSD Slot on your Laptop)
Installing Operating System on SD Card
There are many Linux-based distros available for RPis, you can go with the RaspiOS Lite, the only drawback is that it is only available for 32bit systems. Considering that, you can choose Ubuntu 20.02 Server, which is also lightweight (not as much as RaspiOS) but it has been working fine. For this article, I will be using Ubuntu 20.02 Server.
Raspberry Pi provides an official image tool for installing the operating system on SD Card, but you can use any other tool as well. Download the Ubuntu image from here. Next, connect the SD card and open the image tool. Select the Choose OS option and then select the Custom Image option, select the ubuntu image you downloaded. Next, select the storage device and click on Write. This will take some time (from 5–20 minutes), and once done, continue the same process for all other SD Cards.
After this, insert the SD Cards into the Raspberry Pis and power them on.
Connecting RPis to Wifi (Optional)
If you want to use the RPis connected with Ethernet only then you can skip this step. Also if you have a mini-HDMI to HDMI converter, you don’t need an Ethernet cable to set up wifi, you can connect your RPis to a screen and follow the same process.
To connect your RPis to Wifi, you will have to first connect it with an Ethernet cable. Go to your router settings and get the IP address of the RPis. Then SSH into the RPis one by one and repeat the same step.
Note: The default password is ubuntu
You need to find the network interface name first
iw dev | grep Interface
Now to connect to Wifi you have to edit the netplan configuration
sudo nano /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml
Then add the following inside network block
wifis: <interface-name>: dhcp4: true optional: true access-points: "<your-wifi-ssid>”: password: "<your-wifi-password>"
Save and exit the editor and then apply the new configuration
sudo netplan apply
Now your device should be connected to wifi, you can check by
Now, repeat the same process on all the Raspberry Pis and then you can disconnect the Ethernet cable.
Note: the IP address has changed.
Configuring Raspberry Pis for SSH
First, change the hostname of the Pis so they are easy to distinguish.
For master node
sudo hostname-ctl set-hostname kmaster
For worker nodes
sudo hostname-ctl set-hostname knode<node number>
Now, on your system create SSH keys and authorise them for the RPis by following these steps
Note: Following steps are to be followed on your system
- Create a .ssh directory if it doesn’t exist and cd into it
mkdir .ssh && cd .ssh
2. Use ssh-keygen to create SSH keys for master and all worker nodes, name the keys according to the hostname of the nodes so it’s easy to find.
3. Add the SSH keys to the ssh-agent
ssh-add kmaster ssh-add knode<node number>
4. Copy the ssh-keys to the RPis
_\# Master node_ ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/kmaster.pub ubunut@<RPI-IP-ADDRESS> _\# Worker node_ ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/knode<number>.pub ubuntu@<RPI-IP-ADDRESS>
If you had defined a static IP address for the RPis, you can use a hostname rather than an IP address
echo -e "<master node ip address>\\tkmaster" | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts echo -e "<worker node 1 ip address>\\tknode1" | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
Now, try to login into the RPis to verify that everything is working fine
ssh ubuntu@kmaster ssh ubuntu@knode1
Installing Kubernetes on Raspberry Pi Cluster
This section is a guide on how to install Kubernetes on Raspberry Pi Cluster with a Master and multiple Worker Nodes. We will be installing k3s because it is lightweight, you can install any other distribution as well.
Since we will be using Docker, follow the official docs to install, you can find them here.
Installing K3s Master
SSH into the master node
Now install K3s
curl -sfL [https://get.k3s.io](https://get.k3s.io) | sh -s - --docker
Verify that the installation was successful
sudo kubectl get nodes
Note: You can check the k3s service to debug if the installation was not successful
sudo systemctl status k3s
Installing K3s Nodes
On your system, run the following command to get the node token from the k3s master
MASTER\_TOKEN=$(ssh ubuntu@kmaster "sudo cat /var/lib/rancher/k3s/server/node-token")
Now SSH into the node
Install K3s agent
curl -sfL [http://get.k3s.io](http://get.k3s.io) | K3S\_URL=https://kmaster:6443 K3S\_TOKEN=$MASTER\_TOKEN sh -s - --docker
Verify that the K3s agent was installed successfully
sudo systemctl status k3s-agent
Install kubectl, a command-line interface tool that allows you to run commands against a remote Kubernetes cluster.
Now, create a config file to access the RPis K3s Cluster
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube/k3s touch $HOME/.kube/k3s/config chmod 600 $HOME/.kube/k3s/config
Next, copy the k3s cluster configuration from the master node
ssh pi@kmaster "sudo cat /etc/rancher/k3s/k3s.yaml" **\>** $HOME/.kube/k3s/config
Edit the k3s config file on the client machine and change the remote IP address of the k3s master from
_\# Edit master config_ nano $HOME/.kube/k3s/config _\# Search for the 'server' attribute located in -_ _\# clusters:_ _\# - cluster:_ _\# server:_ [_https://127.0.0.1:6443_](https://127.0.0.1:6443) _or_ [_https://localhost:6443_](https://localhost:6443) _#_ _\# Change 'server' value to_ [_https://kmaster:6443_](https://kmaster:6443)_ \# Do not change the port value_
Now, export the
_k3s_ config file path as the
KUBECONFIG environment variable to use the config
Verify the setup
kubectl get nodes
Installing LitmusChaos on Raspberry Pi Cluster
This section is a guide on how to install LitmusChaos 2.0 on Raspberry Pi Cluster with K3s
For installation, we will be following their docs. There are two ways to install, one is by using helm, other is by applying the YAML spec file. We will be installing using the YAML spec file, you can follow the other one if you want by going through their docs.
kubectl apply -f [https://litmuschaos.github.io/litmus/2.0.0/litmus-2.0.0.yaml](https://litmuschaos.github.io/litmus/2.0.0/litmus-2.0.0.yaml)
Note: You can find the latest version of litmus at docs.litmuschaos.io
Let’s verify that all the services are running and that there have been no issues
kubectl get pods -n litmus kubectl get svc -n litmus
You can now use the LitmusChaos dashboard by using this address
The /etc/hosts file sets to default after a restart, so you will have to keep adding the RPis IP every time you restart or you can run a startup script that will automatically set the values on every restart.
You can edit the bash profile file on your system to use this Kubeconfig and also add the ssh keys to the ssh-agent. In my system it was the /home/username/.profile file, it might differ in your system. I added these lines to the profile
eval $(ssh-agent) ssh-add ~/.ssh/kmaster ssh-add ~/.ssh/knode1export KUBECONFIG=$HOME/.kube/k3s/config
In this article, we first set up the Raspberry Pis cluster and then installed K3s on the cluster. After that, we installed LitmusChaos onto the K3s cluster. We can now proceed with injecting chaos using the portal. This kind of setup is beneficially for local development purposes, and you will be saving money on AWS servers.
You can join the LitmusChaos community on Github and Slack. The community is very active and tries to solve queries quickly.
I hope you enjoyed this journey and found the blog interesting. You can leave your queries or suggestions (appreciation as well) in the comments below.
Show your ❤️ with a ⭐ on our Github. To learn more about Litmus, check out the Litmus documentation. Thank you! 🙏
Thank you for reading
Software Engineer at Harness